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触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀

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触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客


张光直著《美术、神话与祭祀》插图,显示古代青铜礼器中“食器”和“酒器”主要种类。精致奢华的祭祀仪式对先秦时代的统治者来说必不可少,拥有装饰了动物纹样的青铜礼器,是获得祖先智慧的必要保障。Illustration in Kwang-chih Chang's book Art, Myth and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China shows the main types of food vessels and drinking vessels in bronze age ritual. Exquisite and luxurious sacrificial rituals were indispensable to the rulers of the pre-Qin era. Bronze ritual vessels decorated with animal patterns were pivotal to gain the wisdom from ancestors.

        
触摸先秦时代 

Touching the Pre-Qin Era


荐书人  张涛 
Recommender Zhang Tao


张光直先生是华裔考古人类学家,艺术史学者巫鸿的老师,《美术、神话与祭祀》据其自称是为最喜欢的一本著作,也是我当年读得茅塞顿开的一本书。

Mr. Chang Kwang-chih was a Chinese archaeological and anthropologist; he was also the tutor of the art historian Wu Hung. Art, Myth and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China is one of Wu Hung's favorite books, and it is also a book that enlightened me. 


《左传》有言:“国之大事,在祀在戎。”中国先秦美术史的研究,大多都是离不开这两个前提的。先秦时期的研究,由于文献史料的极度匮乏,极有探究难度,一些相关的学术解读,尤其是艺术史研究,往往流之于想当然的历史臆想。张光直先生凭借自己多年的学养积累与敏锐的历史感,却在这个领域,建立起了让人极为信服的解释框架。虽然海登·怀特在《元史学》中直戳历史学研究中的终极悖论所在,但是毕竟与文学性情天然有别,史学研究的叙事,是在无限的追溯,而非烂漫的重塑。张光直先生的这本书,完全可以作为跨学科研究的范本。


It is said in Zuo Zhuan: "The important events of the country lie in ritual and military affair." Most of the researches on the history of Chinese art before Qin cannot help but taking into consideration these two fields. The research in the pre-Qin period is extremely difficult to carry out due to the lack of documents and material. The investigation was extremely difficult and therefore some academic interpretations were arbitrary and justified by assumptions. However, Chang Kwang-chih, thanks to years of self-cultivation, knowledge and historical sensitivity, managed to elaborate a convincing interpretative framework for these matters. Although Hayden White states that there is a paradox in the historical research in the book History of Yuan Dynasty, however it can be said that the content of the book is very different from a literary text. The narrative of historical research is an endless retrospection rather than a reconstruction of events. Mr.Chang's book can be definitely taken as a model for interdisciplinary research.


触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客


汉代瓦当上的“四神图”。它标示出了古代中国城邑的方形结构和基本方位。四角有四个神兽,分别为北方玄武(下)、南方朱雀(上)、东方青龙(左)和西方白虎(右)。城邑首先是一个政治核心,是行政网络的重要节点。The "Four Gods" on the eaves tile in the Han Dynasty. It shows the square structure and basic orientation of ancient Chinese cities. There are four sacred beasts on the four corners, namely, the northern Xuanwu (bottom), the Southern Suzaku (top), the Eastern Blue Dragon (left) and the Western White Tiger (right). The city is first of all a political stronghold and an important node of the administrative network.

    

触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客

周代,洛阳的理想蓝图。王宫在王城正中,市场在王城北部,祖庙在宫殿之东,社稷坛在宫殿之西,朝堂在宫殿之南。所有建筑的主门都朝南开。Luoyang's ideal blueprint in Zhou Dynasty. The royal palace is in the middle of the city; the market is in the north; the ancestral temple is located on the eastern part of the palace; the altar is on the western part of the palace, and the court hall is on the southern part of the palace. The main doors of all buildings face the south.



作者在书中叙述了商代威权政治的兴起缘由。从部落到“国家”的兴起,“昭穆制度”保证了威权政治能够在统治者亲族间维持延续,而对文字的垄断,保证了其对非统治阶层意识形态把握,对青铜器制作,以及在祭祀过程中对仪轨的规定与专断,保证了其始终处于“天”(神界)与“人”(人界)之间衔接的合法中介者的角色,从而为其维持威权政治的统一,笼罩上了一层“天赋治权”的合法性。


In the book, the author described the reasons for the rise of authoritarian politics in the Shang Dynasty. From tribes to "states", the “Zhaomu system”(a system of arranging emperors' temples or memorial tablets) guaranteed that the authoritarian political power would be handed down to the relatives of the ruling families. The monopoly of the writing system ensured an ideological control over the non-ruling classes. The arbitrary rules of the bronze production and of the ritual process during the offer sacrifices justified the role of a legal intermediary between  "heaven" (belonging to the realm of the gods) and the "human" (belonging to the realm of human). This function ensured the intermediary could maintain an authoritarian power, benefiting from a legitimate right to natural governance.  


触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客

《山海经》中的群巫图。 古代人与神不相混杂,当时有些人非常聪颖敏锐,其智慧能辨识天地、其洞察力可光照渊远。有此能力之人,男称“觋”,女称”巫“。他们在祭祀仪式中负责安排诸神灵之位次,向诸神献祭。The picture of witches in Shan Hai Jing. In ancient China, humans and gods were not mixed together. At that time, sharp and clever people were referred to as Xi if they were men or Wu if they were women. They were responsible to implement the orders from the gods and to offer sacrifices to the gods during the ritual ceremonies.


                                                                                                                                                

触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客


《山海经》的四方之神:东方句芒(左上)、西方蓐收(右上)、南方祝融(左下)、北方禺疆(右下)。这些乘着两龙的使者可能联通上帝与人类的世界。《山海经》因“龙”频繁出现,而被看成是“古代的一部巫觋之书”。The Four Gods in Shan Hai Jing: Eastern Jumang (top left), Western Rushou (top right), Southern Zhurong (bottom left), and Northern Yujiang (bottom right). These messengers riding the two dragons were believed to connect the world of God and mankind. Shan Hai Jing is considered as "an ancient book of witchcraft" because of the frequent appearance of dragon.



巫觋现象、青铜器上的神兽造像与饕餮纹、肥遗纹、夔龙纹、青铜铭文等等,均是这种天人沟通中的中介角色的物化形式,而这些形式上的变更与约束,反过来也在客观上影响了王朝的变迁更迭。如对青铜矿的开采,某种程度上决定了商代都城的迁徙脉络。青铜器的造型与纹饰,也并非如一般艺术史家所言,体现的是一种狞厉之美,为了震慑奴隶云云。试想青铜器作为国之重器,作为王族与贵族的身份象征,并且是沟通天人的神秘物态中介,怎可让一般平民抑或奴隶所习见与观瞻?又如巫觋是否是在一种迷狂(由于吸食类似于可刺激神经的兴奋剂或药草一类)状态下进行的祭祀活动?种种怪异的动物图像,是否即是在这种恍惚状态下的臆想产物?(在杨念群的《雪域求法记——一个汉族喇嘛的口述史》一书中,提及第一个拿到格西学位的汉人喇嘛邢肃芝,就曾经回忆起藏族地区的苯教,在降神仪式上的神巫可以头顶四五十公斤的铁质头盔起舞数十分钟而不懈怠,但是戴这种头盔的时候却需要数人帮忙才可套入头中,如果没有这种迷幻或麻醉效果的力量推动,他们又是怎么能够做到呢?)再联想到阿城在一篇回忆录中,提及某次与张光直在哈佛会晤时,张曾悄悄问他是否吸食过某种可刺激神经的物品。想必张先生此问,也是与他的学术研究息息相关。

The phenomenon of witchcraft, the statues representing gods and sacred animals, the “taotie” decorations and the animal-shaped patterns on the bronze wares are all material representations of the intermediary role in the communication between heaven and humans. The formal changes and characteristics of these artifacts also influenced the migration patterns of the different dynasties. For example, the extraction of bronze, to some extent, determined the locations of the capital of the Shang Dynasty. The reason why the shape and decoration of the bronze vessels display a fierce and strong beauty is not, as stated by many historians, because they were used to frighten and deter slaves. In fact, bronze vessels were the most important ritual artifact of the country and used to symbolize the status of royal family and the aristocracy, who had a crucial role in as intermediary for the communication between humans and gods. With such a symbolic value, how could these bronze vessels be even seen by ordinary citizens and slaves? Another interesting issue is whether witchcrafts conduct a sacrificial ritual in a state of ecstasy (induced by smoking stimulants or herbs). Are all these kinds of weird animals visualized during a state of ecstatic trance? (In Yang Nianqun’s book Visiting Lama in the Snow - An Oral History of a Han Lama, it is mentioned that Xing Suzhi, the first Han lama to obtain a Gexi degree, once recalled the Bon religion in Tibetan area. In the typical ceremony, the witch can dance for several minutes wearing a forty or fifty kilograms iron helmet which requires the help of other people to be placed on top of the head of the dancer. How could the witch dance if he or she was not in a state of ecstatic trance?). Similarly, in a memoir by A Cheng, he mentioned that when he met Mr. Chang Kwang-chih at Harvard, Chang asked him privately if he had taken some kind of nerve stimulating substance. Presumably Mr. Chang's question was also closely related to his academic research.

触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客

东周时期洛阳一处墓葬出土的玉人。商周时期的巫觋以动物为助手“飞升”到祖先或神灵的世界来完成工作。因此拥有一件动物纹样礼器就意味着拥有了交通天地的手段,这在商周时期被政治家族看作是财富的象征。A jade man unearthed from a tomb in Luoyang during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the witches used animals as their helpers to "fly up" to the world of ancestors or gods to accomplish their duties. Therefore, having an animal-patterned ritual vessel meant to have a means of communication, which was regarded as a symbol of wealth by families with political power in the Shang and Zhou dynasties.       
                                                                                                                                           




触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客



商代青铜艺术中的人兽主题图案,可见人将头置于兽口。“人与兽口相对”的图形主题在世界各地都有发现,在各个文化中,兽口普遍意味着隔离两个不同世界(如生与死的世界)的出入口。在古代中国,张开的兽口或许还代表着动物的呼吸。古代中国人认为动物的呼吸是风的起因,而风又是交通天地的另一个基本媒介。

The human-beast-themed patterns in the bronze art of the Shang Dynasty show that people put their heads on the mouth of the beast. The graphic theme of "human and animal mouth facing each other" is found all over the world. In various cultures, animal mouth generally represents a gate that separates the two different worlds (namely, the world of life and death). In ancient China, the open animal mouth may also represent the animal's breath. The ancient Chinese believed that the breath of animals generated the wind, and the wind was another basic medium of transportation between heavenly and earthly world.



触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客

山东泰安大汶口新石器时代遗址一座墓葬中包含丰富的随葬品。A tomb that contains rich funerary objects from the Neolithic site at Dawenkou, Tai'an, Shandong province.



通过以上种种论述,张光直先生最后的结论是:古代中国的发展模式,是通过改变人与人之间的关系而得以维系发展的,截然不同于西方通过改变人与自然地关系来推进社会的前进发展。因而中国代表着一种常态的连续性的发展模式,而西方则是一种断裂的非常态的发展模式。这个结论明显是对以西方为发展标本与文明范本,来关照世界其他地域文明的一种有力反驳。虽然与美术有关的内容,在本书中只是其作为论述的例证存在,但是此书对于美术史研究来说还是大有裨益的,尤其对于先秦美术史或者青铜时代的研究,可以大大纠正我们以往在美术史中所习见的一些看似“常识”的谬论。先生此书,极少有一般学术规训后行文诘屈聱牙难以下咽的阅读口感,行文流畅文笔生动,于青铜时代的往事娓娓道来,好看且好读。


After carrying out researches about the topics of the above discussion, Mr.K.C.Chang has drawn the conclusion that the development paradigm of ancient China was determined by the change of relationship between people; this is very different from Western countries which the development of society is determined by the change of the relationship between people and nature. Therefore China’s development model is characterized by a regular continuity, whereas Western countries’ development process is more irregular and fragmented. This conclusion is obviously a powerful refusal to take the West as a model to analyze the development process of different civilization. Although the content related to art is only used as an illustration of the argument of the book, this book is still good to study art history, especially from the pre-Qin Dynasty or the Bronze Age and to challenge those prejudices and misunderstandings of some interpretations of art historians. The book has a smooth and vivid style. It is enjoyable for academic and non-academic readers. 

触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客



这是西伯利亚楚克其人所绘祭祀仪式中正在飞升的动物神灵。萨满在帐篷中做法,地上摆着祭器。动物的灵魂正飞向上空,飞向死神的居所。这些关于礼器和动物功能的复原,仍存在于现代巫术中。This is the ascending animal souls in the sacrificial ceremony painted by the Chukchi people of Siberia. The shaman used to do it in a tent, with sacrificial vessels on the ground. The animal's soul is flying up to the sky, flying towards the deaths. These functions of ritual vessels and animal still exist in modern witchcraft.



张光直先生生逢一甲子而逝,看照片一脸英气与睿智。可叹若能得享耄耋之年,必有更多杰作流传于世。


Mr. Chang Kwang-chih passed away in his sixties. What a pity! If he had lived longer, he could have created more masterpieces to hand down to the world.  


但是能够用文字打败时间,也就获得了另外一种永生。


But his words linger throughout time and this is another form of immortality. 



本文图片来自《美术、神话与祭祀》

Photo credit to ©️Art, Myth and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China





触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客


作者:[美]张光直

译者:郭净

出版社:生活·读书·新知三联书店


Author:Kwang-chih Chang

Translator: Guo Jing

Publisher: SDX Joint Publishing Company






触摸先秦时代|美术、神话与祭祀 美术 神话 先秦 时代 张光直 插图 古代 青铜 礼器 食器 崇真艺客

张涛

Zhang Tao

张涛,博士、中央美术学院副教授、硕士研究生导师。研究领域为近现代艺术史。出版专著《草头露与陌上花——齐白石北漂三部曲》,获第二十七届“金牛杯”优秀美术图书奖铜奖。合著五部,发表相关学术论文四十余篇。


Dr.Zhang Tao, associate professor and master advisor of Central Academy of Fine Arts. His research field is modern art history. Publication includes “Dew on Grass Tip and Flowers on The Path - Qi Baishi Trilogy”. He won the Bronze Award of the 27th "Golden Bull Cup" Excellent Art Book Award and co-authored five books and published more than 40 related academic papers.



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