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HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds

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HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Untitled

Photography, 30.5cm×45cm, 1972

©️HOW Art Museum


»Ich weise darauf hin, dassdas erste Produkt menschlicher Kreativität der Gedanke ist. Und sage aus diesemGrunde: Denken ist bereits Plastik. Gedanken wirken in der Welt.«
The thought is the first product of human creativity, so that´s the reason why thinking is already sculpture, form. Thoughts have impact to the world.

—— Joseph Beuys


Joseph Beuys (12.05.1921, Krefeld – 23.01.1986, Düsseldorf) is regarded as one of the most important and influential artists in the world. Why is Beuys so important? What makes him such a key figure in art history? The answers are both obvious and complex. 

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Beuys, No year
Photography, 30×45cm

©️HOW Art Museum


He has left a lasting mark on the concept of art, the expanded concept of art, and inextricably linked the utopian potential of every artistic activity to the "social organism" understood as sculpture. Through the "parallel process of art and life", any academic separation was abolished and the artistic activity was integrated into the field of tension between everyday life and utopia. 


With his spectacular works and installations like “Honigpumpe am Arbeitsplatz“ (1977), “7000 Eichen“(1982-87), or the “Büro für direkte Demokratie für Volksabstimmung“ (1971) Beuys changed people’s idea what art is and could be, the potential of creativity and the artistic doing an acting, the utopia of all human creativity was his main topic.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Newsletter: 7000 Oaks - Documenta 7
Offset print on white paper
29.6×21cm, 1982
©️HOW Art Museum


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"Many people understand art as the freedom of the arbitrary: Art, so I can do whatever I want! But what is art supposed to do if nothing comes out of it?"


Let's go back to his childhood and start from the very beginning. Just months after Beuys's birth in Krefeld, the family moved north not far away to Kleve. During Beuys's early education at Kleve, his school teachers identified his predilection for drawing and music. In addition to the arts, the young Beuys also demonstratedan aptitude in history, mythology, and the social and natural sciences. 

Although he finally opted for a career in medicine, Beuys's ambition proved short-lived when, in 1941, he voluntarily enrolled himself in the German Luftwaffe. While Beuys's military subscription was voluntary, he had no desire to see actual combat. Thus, in keeping with his interest in medicine, Beuys continued his studies in biology and zoology in the early 1940s. 

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Top: Elk, Color lithograph on wove, 54 ×75cm,1975
Bottom: Bear, Lithograhpy on white wove, 76.5×40 cm 

According to his own account of 1979, a pivotal (and unverifiable) event changed the course of Beuys's life in March of 1944, when his battle plane was shot down over the Crimean Front in Ukraine. Beuys claimed that he was promptly rescued by a nomadic tribe of Tartars, who apparently saved his life by greasing his bruised and battle-weary body with animal fat, before wrapping him entirely - so as to raise his temperature - in felt. 


The importance of ancient healing aids - in this case, fat and felt - for enriching and sustaining the human mind, body, and spirit, would come to play an important and highly visible role in much of Beuys's subsequent work as an artist.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Felt Multiples
Invitation card, offset on white card box
10.5×15.1cm, (1970)1982
©️HOW Art Museum


He was active in Europe from the late 1940s through the early 1980s, and came to be loosely associated with that era's international, pre-Conceptual art movement, Happening and Fluxus. 


Beuys's diverse work ranges from traditional media of incredible drawings, painting, sculpture, and installation to process-oriented, and time-based happening and performance art, the performance of which suggested how art may exercise a therapeutic effect whenit takes up psychological, social, and/or political subjects. 


Beuys is especially famous for works incorporating (evolutionary based ecological pre-thinking) animal fat and felt, two common materials that had profound personal meaning to him. They were also recurring motifs in works suggesting that art, common materials, and one's "everyday life" were ultimately inseparable.



 
HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Everyman is a plastic artist who must determine things for himself."

 
In the 1960s, during Fluxus movement at that time, many artists in Asia, Europe, and the United States, including Beuys, became dissatisfied with a long tradition of "heroic," or object-oriented painting and sculpture (much recently typified by American Abstract Expressionism).

Influenced in part by contemporary experiments in music, such artists found themselves turning away from the art world's prevailing commercialism in favourof "found" and "everyday" items for creating ephemeral, time-based "happenings", impermanent installation art, and/or other largely action-oriented events.

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare

1965, performance video, 6min22sec

©️HOW Art Museum

 

Beuys demonstrated how art might originate in personal experience yet also address universal artistic, political, and/or social ideas (i.e. topical issues of the day).


This is part of the meaning to be gleanedfrom his 1965 solo performance, “How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare”, at Galerie Schmela in Düsseldorf, in which materials of personal significance (one foot wrapped in felt, the cradling of a recently deceased animal) poetically suggest the healing potential of art for a humanity seeking self-revitalization and a sense of renewed hope in the future (one should recall that Beuys came of age in the immediate post-war period, when many Germans were just coming to terms withmany traumatic aspects of their recent past).

 



HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"If you take Picasso's phrase: “Art is not there to decorate our homes, but is an offensive and defensive weapon against the enemy", then the question is: Who is the enemy? Where are the shortcomings? Where's the one that needs to be done?"
 
HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
©️HOW Art Museum


Again and again there were provocations and scandals against the authorities, the law, because Beuys did not want to accept the given circumstances. One example: In 1972, Joseph Beuys, professor of art at Düsseldorf Art Academy, occupied the Academy with 80 students in order to help unsuccessful applicants for admission, Joseph Beuys emphasized: "And when they come with tanks, I'll stay.” 


In October, the world-famous lecturer insculpture at the Düsseldorf Academy irritated his employer, North Rhine-West phalia's Minister of Science. Beuys had occupied the secretariat of the Art School in order to enforce enrolment. Those rejected candidates wanted to admit Beuys’ class, which already included 270 students, and pleaded academic freedom. In the end, the result turned out to be: he was fired by the Ministry even with police violence. 


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Joseph Beuys crossed the Rhine in a dugout canoe, 1973.


On October 20th,1973, one year after his dismissal, Beuys crossed the Rhine in a dug out canoe built by the master follower Anatol to the bank where the Academy of Fine Arts was located. This "bringing home" as a spectacular symbolic act aroused great public interest. 


At least Beuys was asked to come back to the Dusseldorf Academy and he returned there in 1980 as a visiting professor. Meanwhile, Nam June Paik, his close friend from the Fluxus time, was also hired as a Professor of Video Art(1979–1996) at Düsseldorf Art Academy. 


Such actions were "artistic processes" for Beuys. For him his "concept of art" has expanded and realized that the "highest meaning of sculpture" lies in the"creation of man". 


Beuys suggested, in both his teaching and in his mature "Actionism" and sculptural artworks, that "art" might not ultimately constitute a specialized expression but rather a heightened humanitarian attitude, or way of conducting one's life, in every realm of daily activity.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Silver Broom and Broom without Bristles

Broom (wood and horsehair), encased in 1 mm silver sheet, 139×51cm.

Solid copper and felt, 130×51cm.

©️HOW Art Museum


In this regard, Beuys's works signals a new era in which art has increasingly become engaged with social commentary and political activism based on individual mythology (documenta5 in 1972 by Harald Szeemann). 


Neither the social sculpture nor the energy plan as variants of the new mythology are of a mere artificial nature. 


They carry over to the formation of recommence social critique of the world of politics. But this also cast doubt on these concepts. Objections to such an encroachment are rife, and not completely with our justification. How can a society lacking any form, as some would say, being formless, amorphous or anomic, still call itself the society? 


It would not be difficult to view Joseph Beuys´s new mythology as an attempt to answer precisely this question. His romantic inheritance, employed in no way with total innocence, and also democratically re-framed in many ways, does not deserve a hastily formulated accusation of totalitarianism.


Beuys frequently blurred the lines between art and life, fact and fiction, by suggesting that what one believed to constitute "reality" mattered more in matters of human action, social/political behaviour, and personal creativity than any definition of everyday reality based on traditional standards of "normalcy," or social codes of so-called "proper" conduct.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Rose for Direct Democracy

Graduated glass cylinder

33.5cm×5cm (dia), 1973

©️HOW Art Museum




HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"The choice of these materials does not come from a painterly impulse at first, but from a vivid sculptural volition. These materials occur at a time when I was trying to break down the term ‘plastic’ (sculpture) into its components. And there feeling appears as an insulating element within the three constellations of ‘plastic’ (sculpture): indefinite, determined and movement. So, the simplest thing in the world in describing the process of a productionis: Indefinite starting point, moment of movement and form."

 

It is notable that several eyewitness accounts are on record as contradicting Beuys's romantic and exotic parables; in addition, there were reportedly no Tartar tribesmen occupying the region of Beuys's alleged military plane crash. 


In any event, a mixture of fact and fiction would come to play a central role in Beuys's later art works.


Indeed, Beuys's tale of heroic rescue by Tartars (whether true or false) served as something of a lynchpin for his decision, in the immediate wake of World War II, to devote himself thereafter to art andavant-garde culture.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Untitiled (Social Sculpture)
Poster, print
42×29.5cm, 1976
©️HOW Art Museum


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"I don't believe that an art school, which should stress new artistic concepts, should lay emphasis on fixed places to work in the school. That sort of thinking is tied up with the idea of art as a craft, with the work-bench and the drawing-table."


Beuys's insistence on the fundamentally democratic nature of human creativity suggested that every fully thinking and feeling person is, by definition, an artist, has left a widely influential and creative legacy since his death in 1986. 


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Save the Woods
Offset on pape
49.5cm×50cm, 1972


While Beuys had always made an impact on his fellow Fluxus colleagues since the early1960s, he would ultimately come to play a larger role in lending credence to the notion, increasingly popular since the mid 1990s, that art should address social, political, and related concerns by blurring the boundaries between its own practice, as a professional discipline, and everyday reality. 


This is particularly the case in regard to Beuys's aesthetic of Social Sculpture, which suggested art's potential to transform the life of the individual observer, as well as the social conditions of her/his larger culture. 


Beuys believed that if one were, by default, an artist, then one might be an artist everywhere or in every context in which one finds oneself - the art studio proper, the classroom, and the "street"offering equally advantageous circumstances for creative experience.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Voting Paper
Ballot paper for Bundestag eletion, stamped
29.5cm×21cm, 1980
©️HOW Art Museum

 

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"And now I want to get to the heart of the matter. Because every time a democratic process approaches the real nerve of society's transformation, the balance of power in money undermines every genuinely democratic attempt. So,the power of money must be broken. Today, money is a commodity that can be traded. You can speculate on that. In other words, money is not a commodity in the economic sphere. But since it is commodity, this character must be transformed into a democratic totality."


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Economic Value Cake

Packaged instant gravy in shape of cake

handwritten addition, stanped Free Int. University

12×8×3.5cm, 1977


Beuys, the man with the hat, the felt and the fat corner. Exactly 32 years after his death, he appears to us as a visionary who was ahead of his time. 

Patiently he tried to explain even then that "money must not be a commodity". He knew that the money market would undermine democracy. But more than that. 

Beuys boxed, talked, parodied, lectured and explained the art to the dead hare. Do you want to make a revolution without laughing? he asked - and laughed. His expanded concept of art took him right to the heart of today's relevant social debates.


 

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"I'm not an artist. Unless we all see ourselves as artists,then I'll be there again. Otherwise not."

The deeper you look into the art of Joseph Beuys, the more you suspect how much his life was shaped by existential crises. Several times he narrowly escaped death: in the war in a crash of a fighter pilot, inan existential crisis in the 50s, in which he played with the thought of putting an end to his life. Or in the 1970s when he suffered a serious heart attack, when he barely escaped death. 


Beuys talked about these crisis experiences very rarelyand if so, more in the form of legendary self-stylizations. In an interview, he called these experiences of closeness to death "key experiences". 


He understood the healing processes after the severe impairments not only as an individual process. If he had succeeded in freeing himself from these crises with his own strength, then it should also be possible to transfer this healing experience to a social body which he considers sick.

 
HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Transformation

Postcard, offset

14.8cm×10.5cm, 1983

©️HOW Art Museum


This was apparently one of the driving forces for Beuys' unwavering belief in the changeability of the world. With never-ending energy, he promoted his expanded concept of art, which saw an artist in every human being, i.e. the potential for joint shaping of social processes, through countless lectures and events. 


In the 1980s, he increasingly dealt with economic issues. He saw a major problem in the accumulation of cash flows that, far from democratic control, flow only to where they bring the most revenue and not where they are needed - for education, research and socially relevant investments. 


In many contributions of these years, Beuys was one of the first to formulate the cornerstones for an unconditional basic income, based on his concept of capital, which was derived not from money but from human abilities. In this sense, every person should be entitled to a "credit"regardless of his or her work performance.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
The Capital
Red and black offset on white board
14.7cm×10.5cm, 1981
©️HOW Art Museum


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

"That's the sentence why I was often to be laughed at. Can plastic change the world? (laughs)Yes!"


At the same time, his works of art and all the artworks in the collection of HOW Art Museum and an inexhaustible archive material make it clear that it is far too brief to reduce Beuys to striking formulas that he himself liked to use ("It has to be sensational, otherwise it would be of no interest"). 


Quasi the antipode to his theses was his art itself, especially the drawings, but also the other works. The subtle, sometimes almost filigree structure of his works could not be reduced to theses or closed worldviews.


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
©️HOW Art Museum

Beuys' works with fat, copper and felt were artistic experimental arrangements for him. Fat was a symbol of a solidified form. When it was warmed up, it became mobile and changed its shape. He saw copper as a conductive and felt as an insulating element. 


Using the sculptures and spatial installations created with these materials, Beuys searched for a new concept of sculpture that included the moment of movement. 


And at the same time, he expanded this concept by transferring it to man: He described thinking as an elementary design process. 


And so, thinking about Beuys was already a sculpturein itself. When thoughts get into motion and shape the world, Beuys believes that people were able to intervene in changing social processes. He saw his art as a "stimulating aggregate for joint work". For this "work"he used the term “social sculpture”.

 



HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
Beuys boxes for direct democracy at Documenta 5 ,1972
© Hans Albrecht Lusznat,2017

"It's no big deal if people get aggressive. Why don't you let them get aggressive? At least that's where you can talk to people. That means you have to provoke it. And provocation always means: Now suddenly something comes to life."

 
Beuys provoked with his works, which were understood as "remains of a construction site" or called "the most expensive bulky garbage of all time". 

But he also provoked by his thinking, political thinking, since the student party was founded in 1967. For The Left, he was an idealistic fantasy that conjured up a yesterday’sworld of Novalis, Goethe and Rudolf Steiner that was incompatible with the ideaof class struggle and revolution. 

He was also suspect because of his increasing fame and the sales successes associated with it. Thus, many critics escaped the fact that Beuys, like no other artist, dealt with the core substance of capital- the concept of money. There he wanted to use the lever to "lift capitalism out of its hinges in this form".

HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

Art as Commodity

Package paper drawing with address lable, handwritten 

76.5cm×51cm, 1980

©️HOW Art Museum


This, in turn, was suspect for the art scene, as they wanted to trade his works and earn money with them. Beuys did not elude these attacks. He looked for the confrontation, spoke and discussed with everyone. It was part of his mission - after all, every human being was an artist, i.e. a potential social designer. And he only had to be convinced of this in a personal conversation. 


And honestly, comprehensible in the films documentaries, Beuys was very convincing, charismatic, enthusiastic and tireless. Let us allow ourselves to be infected by him, think about the freedom of mankind and the energy and power of art, expanded art in particular. 


 


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
 


HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
PAIK Nam June: “Wenn too perfect,lieber Gott böse.”


Used sources and quote references:
Der Spiegel, 43,1972, NeuerPartner China, Article: Höheres Recht, p. 196.
Cat. Kunsthaus Zürich 1993: Joseph Beuys, curator: Harald Szeemann.
Cat. Nationalgalerie Berlin 2008, Beuys,Die Revolution sind wir,curators:EugenBlume / Catherine Nichols.
www.theartstory.org/artist-beuys-joseph.html.
Cat. CAFA Art Museum Beijing 2013, Social Sculpture. Beuys in China,
curators: Lao Zuh / Yi Ying.
BEUYS | Ein Film von Andres Veiel (movie), 2017.

 




HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客




 Gregor Jansen 

   Guest Curator for Lettres du Voyant : Beuys x Paik

HOW Art Museum,Shanghai


Gregor Jansen, born in 1965 in Nettetal on the Lower Rhine, is an art historian; he has been head of the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf since January 2010. 


Jansen wrote his doctorate on the Berlin-based painter Eugen Schönebeck. From 1991 onwards he worked variously as an exhibition manager, curator, lecturer, art critic and publicist. Until 2005 he lectured in media theory, cultural and visual art history at the University of Applied Sciences Aachen and at the Academy of Fine Arts Maastricht (ABKM). He has written numerous catalogue texts and essays and articles for art journals such as springerin, Kunstbulletin, Metropolis M, Parkett and Blitzreview. 


In 2000 he curated the Japan/Korea section of the transnational exhibition “Continental Shift” in Belgium, Germany and Netherlands. In 2002, he was appointed Curator for the Second Media Art Biennale in South Korea, “Media_City Seoul”.


Gregor Jansen was appointed Curator of “Beijing Case”, a scholarship programme in 2005, which furthered artistic research into international urban developments in megacities. The project and the subsequent exhibition “Totalstadt. Beijing Case” at 798 in Beijing 2005 and at the ZKM Karlsruhe in 2006 examined the city’s explosive growth and its impact onurban culture caught between the poles of tradition and modernity (with CaoFei, Ou Ning, Xi Zhuan, Echo Ho, Thomas Bayrle, Via Lewandowsky etal.).


Since his first show von Gleich zu Gleich in 1991, he has curated more than 50 shows. Jansen curated a variety of widelyreviewed exhibitions, as well as being author and editor of numerouspublications on modern art; recent ones include KRIWET, Wirtschaftswerte / Museumswerte, Song Dong, Living with Pop.Capitalist Realism,Yin Xiuzhen, Thomas Ruff, Cody Choi, Chris Martin, TommaAbts, Tal R.


 

Text/ Gregor Jansen

Edit / Shiqi


-----------------




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HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客
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HOW Art Museum (Shanghai), as a brand-new cultural institution which boasts multiple functions including contemporary art collection, exhibition, research and education located in Pudong New District of Shanghai, opened to public in September, 2017. HOW Art Museum pioneers to create a new model of operating a “Night Art Museum” for the convenience of the public, opening from 1 to 10pm regularly, and 10am to 10pm on the weekends and holidays. During this special period, opening time is from 11am to 6pm (Tuesday to Sunday). Meanwhile, HOW Art Museum also carries out international exchange programs and outdoor public activities, such as the International Curatorial Residency Program, Outdoor Film Festival and Sculpture Park to establish a brand-new art complex and cultural landmark in Shanghai.

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HOW Joseph Beuys’s Centenary | Intermediary between Worlds 崇真艺客

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